From Circumplex to Sphere: Perceptions of Vocational Activities, Explored and Applied

David Bimler, John Kirkland

Abstract


Schematic maps of the world of work are often used in vocational guidance. Arguably a map is most effective if it coincides with the cognitive representation already internalized by job-seekers. Here, multidimensional scaling was used to extract a consensus representation from judgements about similarities among a set of vocational-aptitude descriptors. To exclude artefacts confined to a single procedure for eliciting similarity judgements, or a single form of analysis, three different procedures were used, and multiple groups of informants. The results converged on a ‘vocational space’ with at least three dimensions. Its axes were interpreted as ‘people / things’, ‘indoor / outdoor’, and ‘creative / routine’ aspects of work – though the map is rotationally indeterminate, so other frames of reference are valid. This map is shown to accommodate individuals’ preference rankings of the descriptors, by representing them as vectors.


Keywords


interests;aptitudes;multidimensional scaling

Full Text:

PDF

References


Athanasou, J. A. (2002). A brief, free and standardised assessment of interests for use in educational and vocational guidance – career interest test (Version 3.0). Occasional Paper 14, University of Technology, Sydney.

Bimler, D. & Kirkland, J. (2001). Categorical perception of facial expressions of emotion: Evidence from multidimensional scaling. Cognition & Emotion 15, 633-658.

Bimler, D. and Kirkland, J. (2003). Smoke and mirrors: Mapping the dimensions of a ‘cigarette space’. Quality & Quantity 37, 377-391.

Bimler, D. & Kirkland, J. (no date). “Trilemmas”: Characterising the Japanese concept of “amae” with a three-way forced-ranking technique. Submitted manuscript.

Block, J. (1961). The Q-sort method in personality assessment and psychological research. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas (reprinted 1978, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press).

Burton, M. (1972). Semantic dimensions of occupation names. In: Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and applications in the Behavioral Sciences (eds. Shepard, Romney, Nerlove). Pp. 55-71.

Coxon, A. P. M. (1971). Occupational attributes: Constructs and structure. Sociology, 5, 335-354.

Coxon, A. P. M. (1999). Sorting Data: Collection and Analysis. Newbury Park, CA.: SAGE.

Coxon, A. P. M. and Jones, C. L. (1979). Class and hierarchy: The social meaning of occupations. London: Macmillan

Davison, M. L., Richards, P. S. & Rounds, J. R. Jr. (1986). Multidimensional scaling in counseling research and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 178-184.

Dawis, R. V. (1992). The structure of occupation(s): Beyond RIASEC. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 171-178.

Day, S. X & Rounds, J. (1998). Universality of vocational interest structure among racial and ethnic minorities. American Psychologist, 53, 728-738.

Guttman, L. (1966). Order analysis of correlation matrices. In Handbook of Multivariate

Experimental Psychology (ed. R. B. Cattell), 438-458. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Hogan, R. (1983). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In: M. M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation 1982. Personality: Current theory and research (pp. 55-89). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Perntice-Hall.

Johnson, L. (1995). A multidimensional analysis of the vocational aspirations of college students. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 28, 25-44.

Jones, L. E. & Koehly, L. M. (1993). Multidimensional scaling. In G. Keren & C. Lewis (eds.), A handbook for data analysis in the behavioral sciences: Methodological issues (pp. 95-163). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kraus, V., Schild, E. O., Hodge, R. W. (1978). Occupational prestige in the collective conscience. Social Forces, 56, 900-918.

Prediger, D. J. (1982). Dimensions underlying Holland’s hexagon: Missing link between interests and occupations? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 259-287.

Reeb, M. (1971). Similarity, prestige and desirability of jobs as seen by counsellors and 14-year-old boys. Occupational Psychology, 45, 233-242.

Roe, A (1956). The psychology of occupations. New York: Wiley.

Ronen, S., Kraut, A. I., Lingoes, J. C. and Aranya, N. (1979). A nonmetric scaling approach to taxonomies of employee work motivation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 387-401.

Rounds, J. B. Jr. & Zevon, M. A. (1983). Multidimensional scaling research in vocational psychology. Applied Psychological Measurement, 7, 491-510.

Schwartz, R. H. (1992). Is Holland’s theory worthy of so much attention, or should vocational psychology move on? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 179-187.

Shivy, V. A., Phillips, S. D. & Koehly, L. M. (1996). Knowledge organization as a factor in career intervention outcome: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 178-186.

Shivy, V. A., Rounds, J. & Jones, L. E. (1999). Applying vocational interest models to naturally occurring occupational perceptions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 207-217.

Strong, E. K. (1943). Vocational interests of men and women. Stanford, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Swaney, K. B. (1995). Technical manual: Revised unisex edition of ACT interest inventory (UNIACT). Iowa City: ACT.

Takane, Y. (1978). A Maximum Likelihood method for nonmetric multidimensional scaling: I. The case in which all empirical pairwise orderings are independent – Theory. Japanese Psychological Research, 20, 7-17.

Tracey, T. J. G. & Rounds, J. (1995). The arbitrary nature of Holland’s RIASEC types: A concentric-circles structure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 431-439.

Tracey, T. J. G. & Rounds, J. (1996). The spherical representation of vocational interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 3-41.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 David Bimler, John Kirkland



Asociatia de Psihologie Industriala si Organizationala
Strada Grigore Moisil, nr. 42, sector 2, București, cod poștal 023796

Creative Commons License
This work by Psihologia Resurselor Umane is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at pru.apio.ro.