Work-life interaction as a mediator between work factors and outcomes

SIMONA-ALEXANDRA ISPAS, DRAGOȘ ILIESCU

Abstract


While work-home interaction has been studied as a mediator between work factors and outcomes, less is known about work-home interaction as a mediator between work factors and mental and physical health. This study analyzes, from a Job Demands-Resources Model framework, whether negative work-home interaction mediates the relationship between job demands and mental/physical health complaints and whether positive work-home interaction mediates the relationship between job resources and health complaints. The statistical results supported our hypotheses, indicating that negative work-home interaction mediated the relationship between job demands (i.e., job insecurity, overload) and health complaints and that positive work-home interaction mediated the relationship between job resources (i.e., growth opportunities, advancement, organizational support) and mental health complaints. These findings broaden the JD-R framework by furthering the understanding of the mechanisms by which work-home interaction impacts an end outcome of interest to organizational psychology – employee health.

Keywords


work-life interaction; work factors; mental health; physical health

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, T. D., & Armstrong, J. (2006). Further examination of the link between work-family conflict and physical health: The role of health-related behaviors. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(9), 1204–1221. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764206286386

Allen, T. D., Shockley, K. M., & Poteat, L. F. (2008). Workplace factors associated with family dinner behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(2), 336–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.07.004

Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 449–469.

Arnold, K. A., & Dupré, K. E. (2012). Perceived organizational support, employee health and emotions. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 5(2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538351211239171

Aulakh, P. S., & Gencturk, E. F. (2000). International principal-agent relationships: Control, governance and performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(6), 521–538. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-8501(00)00126-7

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources Model: State of the art. ResearchGate, 22(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job Demands-Resources Theory. In P. Y. Chen & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, Work and Wellbeing: Volume III (1 edition). Wiley-Blackwell.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. (2003). Dual processes at work in a call centre: An application of the job demands-resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(4), 393–417. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320344000165

Bakker, A. B., & Geurts, S. A. E. (2004). Toward a dual-process model of work-home interference. Work and Occupations, 31(3), 345–366. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888404266349

Baral, R., & Bhargava, S. (2010). Work‐family enrichment as a mediator between organizational interventions for work‐life balance and job outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(3), 274–300. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941011023749

Bennett, A. A., Gabriel, A. S., Calderwood, C., Dahling, J. J., & Trougakos, J. P. (2016). Better together? Examining profiles of employee recovery experiences. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(12), 1635–1654. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000157

Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware, J. E., Barsky, A. J., & Weinstein, M. C. (1991). Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29(2), 169–176.

Bianchi, S. M., & Milkie, M. A. (2010). Work and Family Research in the First Decade of the 21st Century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 705–725. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00726.x

Bongers, P. M., Ijmker, S., van den Heuvel, S., & Blatter, B. M. (2006). Epidemiology of work-related neck and upper limb problems: psychosocial and personal risk factors (part I) and effective interventions from a biobehavioural perspective (part II). Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 16(3), 279–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-006-9044-1

Bosma, H., Peter, R., Siegrist, J., & Marmot, M. (1998). Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 68–74.

Burgard, S. A., & Lin, K. Y. (2013). Bad jobs, bad health? How work and working conditions contribute to health disparities. The American Behavioral Scientist, 57(8). https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213487347

Bussing, A. (1999). Can control at work and social support moderate psychological consequences of job insecurity? Results from a quasi-experimental study in the steel industry. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 219–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398339

Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(2), 169–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.009

de Graaf, R., Tuithof, M., van Dorsselaer, S., & ten Have, M. (2012). Comparing the effects on work performance of mental and physical disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(11), 1873–1883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0496-7

De Witte, H. (1999). Job insecurity and psychological well-being: Review of the literature and exploration of some unresolved issues. European journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 155–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398302

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & Bulters, A. J. (2004). The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relations in a three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 131–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00030-7

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). A model of burnout and life satisfaction amongst nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(2), 454–464.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands-Resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.

Demerouti, E., & Geurts, S. (2004). Towards a typology of work-home interaction. Community, Work & Family, 7(3), 285–309. https://doi.org/10.1080/1366880042000295727

Demerouti, E., Geurts, S. A. E., & Kompier, M. (2004). Positive and negative work‐home interaction: prevalence and correlates. Equal Opportunities International, 23(1/2), 6–35. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610150410787837

Dewa, C. S., Loong, D., & Bonato, S. (2014). Work outcomes of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review. BMJ Open, 4(7), e005533. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005533

Ferrie, J., Shipley, M., Stansfeld, S., & Marmot, M. (2002). Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self-reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health-related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56(6), 450–454. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.6.450

Fletcher, J. M., Sindelar, J. L., & Yamaguchi, S. (2011). Cumulative effects of job characteristics on health. Health Economics, 20(5), 553–570.

Fox, G. L., & Chancey, D. (1998). Sources of economic distress individual and family outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 19(6), 725–749. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251398019006004

Frone, M. R. (2000). Work-family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: the National Comorbidity Survey. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 888–895.

Frone, M. R., Barnes, G. M., & Farrell, M. P. (1994). Relationship of work-family conflict to substance use among employed mothers: The role of negative affect. Journal of Marriage and Family, 56(4), 1019–1030. https://doi.org/10.2307/353610

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Barnes, G. M. (1996). Work-family conflict, gender, and health-related outcomes: a study of employed parents in two community samples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(1), 57–69.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1997). Relation of work-family conflict to health outcomes: A four-year longitudinal study of employed parents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(4), 325–335. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00652.x

Geurts, S. A. E., Kompier, M. A. J., Roxburgh, S., & Houtman, I. L. D. (2003). Does work-Home interference mediate the relationship between workload and well-being? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 532–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00025-8

Geurts, S. A. E., Taris, T. W., Kompier, M. A. J., Dikkers, J. S. E., Hooff, M. L. M. V., & Kinnunen, U. M. (2005). Work-home interaction from a work psychological perspective: Development and validation of a new questionnaire, the SWING. Work & Stress, 19(4), 319–339. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500410208

Geuskens, G. A., Koppes, L. L. J., van den Bossche, S. N. J., & Joling, C. I. (2012). Enterprise restructuring and the health of employees: a cohort study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54(1), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31823c766e

Greene, C. N., & Organ, D. W. (1973). An evaluation of causal models linking the received role with job satisfaction. Administrative Science Quarterly, 18(1), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391931

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76–88. https://doi.org/10.2307/258214

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72–92. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2006.19379625

Grzywacz, J. G. (2000). Work-family spillover and health during midlife: Is managing conflict everything? ResearchGate, 14(4), 236–43. https://doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-14.4.236

Grzywacz, J. G., & Bass, B. L. (2003). Work, family, and mental health: Testing different models of work-family fit. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(1), 248–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00248.x

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43(6), 495–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2005.11.001

Hämmig, O., Knecht, M., Läubli, T., & Bauer, G. F. (2011). Work-life conflict and musculoskeletal disorders: a cross-sectional study of an unexplored association. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 12, 60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-12-60

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach (1st edition). New York: The Guilford Press.

Heaney, C. A., Price, R. H., & Rafferty, J. (1995). Increasing coping resources at work: A field experiment to increase social support, improve work team functioning, and enhance employee mental health. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(4), 335–352. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160405

IBM Corp. (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 22). Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Jackson, L., & Rothmann. (2005). Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province. Perspectives in Education, 23(3), 107–122.

Janssen, P. P. M., Peeters, M. C. W., Jonge, J. de, Houkes, I., & Tummers, G. E. R. (2004). Specific relationships between job demands, job resources and psychological outcomes and the mediating role of negative work-home interference. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 411–429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2003.09.004

Kawakami, N., Haratani, T., & Araki, S. (1992). Effects of perceived job stress on depressive symptoms in blue-collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 18(3), 195–200.

Khamisa, N., Peltzer, K., & Oldenburg, B. (2013). Burnout in relation to specific contributing factors and health outcomes among nurses: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(6), 2214–2240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10062214

Kinnunen, U., & Nätti, J. (1994). Job insecurity in Finland: Antecedents and consequences. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 4(3), 297–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329408410490

Kivimäki, M., Leino-Arjas, P., Luukkonen, R., Riihimäi, H., Vahtera, J., & Kirjonen, J. (2002). Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ, 325(7369), 857. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7369.857

Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1982). Job Conditions and Personality: A Longitudinal Assessment of Their Reciprocal Effects. American Journal of Sociology, 87(6), 1257–1286.

Kossek, E. E., Pichler, S., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2011). Workplace social support and work-family conflict: A meta-analysis clarifying the influence of general and work-family-specific supervisor and organizational support. ResearchGate, 64(2), 289–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01211.x

Lim, S.-Y., & Murphy, L. R. (1999). The relationship of organizational factors to employee health and overall effectiveness. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36(S1), 64–65. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199909)36:1+<64::AID-AJIM23>3.0.CO;2-1

Lindstrom, K., Leino, T., Seitsamo, J., & Torstila, I. (1997). A Longitudinal Study of Work Characteristics and Health Complaints Among Insurance Employees in VDT Work. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 9(4), 343–368. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327590ijhc0904_2

Lingard, H., & Francis, V. (2005). Does work-family conflict mediate the relationship between job schedule demands and burnout in male construction professionals and managers? Construction Management and Economics, 23(7), 733–745. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446190500040836

Martinussen, M., Richardsen, A. M., & Burke, R. J. (2007). Job demands, job resources, and burnout among police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(3), 239–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.03.001

Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In P. J. D. Drenth (Ed.), Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology: Work psychology (pp. 5–33). Psychology Press.

Merrill, R. M., Aldana, S. G., Pope, J. E., Anderson, D. R., Coberley, C. R., Grossmeier, J. J., … HERO Research Study Subcommittee. (2013). Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(1), 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e31827b73af

Moideenkutty, U., Blau, G., & Al-Mandhari, A. (2008). Quality of Relationship with Supervisor and Work Exhaustion among Nurses. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 8(3), 275–282.

Montgomery, A. J., Panagopolou, E., & Benos, A. (2006). Work-family interference as a mediator between job demands and job burnout among doctors. Stress and Health, 22(3), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1104

Montgomery, A. J., Peeters, M. C. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ouden, M. D. (2003). Work‐home interference among newspaper managers: Its relationship with burnout and engagement. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 16(2), 195–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2003.10382973

Mostert, K. (2006, January 1). Job resources, work engagement and the mediating role of positive work-home interaction of police officers in the North West Province. North West University. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281265149_Job_resources_work_engagement_and_the_mediating_role_of_positive_work-home_interaction_of_police_officers_in_the_North_West_Province

Niedhammer, I., Goldberg, M., Leclerc, A., Bugel, I., & David, S. (1998). Psychosocial factors at work and subsequent depressive symptoms in the Gazel cohort. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 24(3), 197–205.

Nitzsche, A., Jung, J., Pfaff, H., & Driller, E. (2013). Employees’ negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56(5), 590–598. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22121

Peeters, M. C. W., de Jonge, J., Janssen, P. P. M., & van der Linden, S. (2004). Work-home interference, job stressors, and employee health in a longitudinal perspective. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(4), 305–322. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.11.4.305

Rao, T. S. S., & Indla, V. (2010). Work, family or personal life: Why not all three? Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(4), 295–297. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.74301

Rongen, A., Robroek, S. J. W., van Lenthe, F. J., & Burdorf, A. (2013). Workplace health promotion: a meta-analysis of effectiveness. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(4), 406–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.12.007

Rothmann, S., Mostert, K., & Strydom, M. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of the job demands-resources scale in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 32(4). Retrieved from http://sajip.co.za/index.php/sajip/article/viewArticle/239

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schriesheim, C. A. (1979). The similarity of individual directed and group directed leader behavior descriptions. The Academy of Management Journal, 22(2), 345–355. https://doi.org/10.2307/255594

Schultz, A. B., & Edington, D. W. (2007). Employee health and presenteeism: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 17(3), 547–579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-007-9096-x

Shultz, K. S., Wang, M., & Olson, D. A. (2010). Role overload and underload in relation to occupational stress and health. Stress and Health, 26(2), 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1268

Stansfeld, S. A., Fuhrer, R., Shipley, M. J., & Marmot, M. G. (1999). Work characteristics predict psychiatric disorder: prospective results from the Whitehall II Study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(5), 302–307.

Sundquist, J., & Johansson, S. E. (2000). High demand, low control, and impaired general health: working conditions in a sample of Swedish general practitioners. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 123–131.

Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., & Näswall, K. (2002). No security: A meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3), 242–264. https://doi.org/10.1037//1076-8998.7.3.242

Taloyan, M., Aronsson, G., Leineweber, C., Hanson, L. M., Alexanderson, K., & Westerlund, H. (2012). Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: A nationally representative study of the Swedish working population. PLOS ONE, 7(9), e44721. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044721

Theorell, T., Hammarström, A., Aronsson, G., Träskman Bendz, L., Grape, T., Hogstedt, C., … Hall, C. (2015). A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms. BMC Public Health, 15, 738. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1954-4

van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & NEXT Study Group coordinated by Hans-Martin Hasselhorn. (2008). Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(5), 572–584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04630.x

Wagena, E., & Geurts, S. (2000). SWING. Ontwikkeling en validering van de “Survey Werk-thuis Interferentie—Nijmegen.” / Development and validation of the “Nijmegen Work–Home Interference Survey.” Gedrag & Gezondheid, 28, 138–158.

Ware, J. E. (1999). SF-36 Health Survey. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment: Volume 1: General Considerations (2 edition, pp. 1227–1246). Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wilson, S. M., Larson, J. H., & Stone, K. L. (1993). Stress among Job Insecure Workers and Their Spouses. Family Relations, 42(1), 74–80. https://doi.org/10.2307/584925

Winter, T., Roos, E., Rahkonen, O., Martikainen, P., & Lahelma, E. (2006). Work-family conflicts and self-rated health among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13(4), 276–285. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm1304_2

Yano, E., Wang, Z.-M., Wang, X.-R., Wang, M.-Z., & Lan, Y.-J. (2001). Cancer mortality among workers exposed to amphibole-free chrysotile asbestos. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(6), 538–543. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/154.6.538


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




Copyright (c) 2017 Psihologia Resurselor Umane

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Asociatia de Psihologie Industriala si Organizationala
Strada Grigore Moisil, nr. 42, sector 2, București, cod poștal 023796

Creative Commons License
This work by Psihologia Resurselor Umane is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at pru.apio.ro.