EMOŢIILE ÎN VIAŢA SOCIALĂ. RUŞINEA ŞI VINOVĂŢIA ÎN SPAŢIUL PUBLIC POSTCOMUNIST DIN ROMÂNIA

Septimiu Chelcea

Abstract


În acest articol prezint unele aspecte ale vieţii sociale din România postdecembristă care susţin teza că emoţiile îsi au originea în relaţiile sociale. Voi aduce argumente teoretice si dovezi empirice în sprijinul ipotezei că rusinea si vinovăţia sunt emoţii sociale distincte, corelate organic. Propun, de asemenea, o „Tipologie psihosociologică a rusinii” si avanseaz ideea reconceptualizării teoriei „Spirala tăcerii”. Mai atrag atenţia asupra alienării „proletariatului emoţional” în condiţiile extinderii „muncii emoţionale” în societăţile moderne. Pe baza postulatului că înainte de a fi sapiens, homo a fost sentiens si că în timp real emoţiile sunt primordiale, se formulează câteva cerinţe pentru cercetarea vieţii sociale si pentru acţiunea socială.

Keywords


emoţii; vinovăţie; ruşine

References


Ashforth, Blake E. & Tomiuk, Marc A. (2000) Emotional labour and autenticity: views from service agents. In S. Fineman (ed.) Emotion in Organizations (pp. 184-203). Londra: Sage Publications Ltd.

Barbalet, Jack M. (1998, 2001) Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure. A Macrosociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benedict, Ruth (1946) The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Branscombe, Nyla R. & Doosje, Bertjan (eds.) (2004) Collective Guilt. International Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Britt, Lory & Heise, David (2000) From shame to pride in identity politics. In S. Stryker, T.J. Owens & R.W. White (eds.) Self, Identity, and Social Movements (pp. 252-270). Minneapolis: University of Minnestota Press.

Broucek, Francis (1991) Shame and Self. New York: Guilford.

Cosnier, Jacques (1994, 2002) Introducere în psihologia emoŃiilor si a sentimentelor. Iasi: Editura Polirom (Psychologie des émotions et sentiments. Paris: Editions Retz. Trad. rom. E. Galan).

Creighton, Millie R. (1990) Revisiting shame and gulit cultures: A forty-year pilgrimage. Ethos, 18, 3, 279-307.

Darwin, Charles (1872, 1967) Expresia emoŃiilor la om si animale. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei RPR (The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Londra: J. Murray. Trad. rom. E. Margulius).

Davitz, Joel R. (1969) The Language of Emotion. New York: Academic Press.

Doi, Takeo (1973) The Anatomy of Dependence. Tokyo: Kodansha (Trad. engl. J. Bester).

Damasio, Antonio R. (1994, 2004). Eroarea lui Descartes. EmoŃiile, raŃiunea si creierul uman. Bucuresti: Editura Humanitas (Descartes’Error. Emotion, Reason, and the

Human Brain. New York: A Grosset/Putnam Book. Trad. rom. I. Tănăsescu)

Dramer, Kai (1981) Can the anthropological distinction between guilt cultures and shame cultures contribute to understanding of japanese morality? Proceedings from First Nordic Symposium in Japonology. Occasional Papers, No. 3. Oslo: University of Oslo Representralen.

Ekman, Paul (1992) An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169- 200.

Ekman, Paul (ed.) (1973) Darwin and Facial Expression. New York: Academic Press.

Ekman, Paul & Friesen, Wallace V. (1971) Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124-129.

Ekman, Paul & Friesen, Wallace V. (1975) Unmasking the Face: A Guide to Recognizing Emotions from Facial Clues. Oxford: Prentice-Hall.

Ekman, Paul & Davidson, R.J. (1995) The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. New York: Oxford University press.

Ekman, Paul & Rosenberg, Erika [1997] (2005) What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (ediŃia a II-a). New York: Oxford University Press.

Elias, Norbert (1939, 2002). Procesul civilizării. Cercetări sociogenetice si psihogenetice. Iasi: Editura Polirom (Über der Prozess der Zivilisation. Soziogenetische und psychogenetische Untersuchungen. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Verlag. Trad. rom. M.-M. Aldea).

Epstein, Seymour (1984) Controversial issues in emotion theory. In P. Shaver (ed.) Rewiew of Personality and Social Psychology (pp. 64-88). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Farr, R.M. (1996) The Roots of Modern Social Psychology. 1872-1954. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Gautheron, Marie (1991, 2003). Povesti ale onoarei si ale rusinii în CM1. În M. Gautheron (coord.) Onoarea. Imagine de sine si sau dar de sine: un ideal echivoc. Bucuresti: Editura Trei (L’Honneur. Image de soi ou don de soi: n idéal équivoque. Paris: Éditions Autrement. Trad. rom. M. Jităreanu).

Ghem, T.L. & Scherer, K.R. (1988). Relating situation evaluation to emotion differentiation: Nonnumeric analysis of cross-cultural questionnaire data. În K.R. Scherer (ed.) Facets of Emotion: Recent Research (pp. 61-77). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gilbert, Paul (1998) What is shame? In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews. Shame. Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology, and Culture (pp. 3-38). New York: Oxford University Press.

Goffman, Erving (1967) Interaction Ritual. New York: Anchor.

Grenwald, Deborah F. & Harder, David W. (1998) Domains of shame. Evolutionary, cultural, and psychotherapeutic aspects. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (eds.) Shame. Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology, and Culture (pp. 225-245). New York: Oxford University Press.

Heider, Fritz (1958) The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Hewstone, Mils (1995, 1996) Attributional bias. In A.S.R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 71-76). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell (1979, 2001) Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. In A. Branaman (ed.) Self and Society (pp. 138-156). Oxford: Blackwell Publischers Inc.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell (1983) The Managed heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Izard, Carroll E. (1977, 1992) Human Emotions (ediŃia a II-a). New York: Plenum Press.

Jderu, Gabriel (2006). Raport de cercetare (nepublicat).

Johnson, R.C. & al. (1987) Guilt, shame, and adjustment in three cultures. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 357-364.

Kemper, Theodore D. (1978) A Social Interactional Theory of Emotions. New York: Wiley.

Kemper, Theodore D. (1990) Social relations and emotions: A structural approach. In T.D.

Kemper (ed.). Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions (pp. 207-237). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kovecses, Zoltan (1990) Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kuper, Adam & Kuper, Jessica (1984, 2004) The Social Science Encyclopedia (ediŃia a III-a, vol. 1). Londra: Routledge. Lange, Carl [1885] (1922) The Emotions. Baltimore: Williams si Wilkins.

Lester, David (1998) The association of shame and guilt with suicidality, Journal of Social Psychology, 138, 4, 535-536.

Lewis, Helen Block (1971) Shame and Guilt in Neurosis. New York: International Universities Press.

Lewis, Michael (1995) Embarrassment: The emotion of self exposure and embarrassment. In J.P. Tangney & K.W. Fischer (eds). Self94 Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embararrassment and Pride (pp. 198-218). New York: Gulford Press.

Lewis, Michael (1998) Shame and stigma. In P. Gilbert si B. Andrews. Shame. Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology, and Culture (pp. 126-140). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lynd, Helen (1958) On Shame and the Search for Identity. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Macdonald, C.L. & Sirianni, C. (1996) Working in the Service Economy. Phildephia: Templ University Press.

Macdonald, James (1989) Disclosure shame. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews. Shame. Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology, and Culture (pp. 141-160). New York: Oxford University Press.

Marschall, Thomas H. (1938, 1973). The nature of class conflict. In Class, Citizenship and Social Development (pp. 164-173). Westport, Conn.: Greenood Press.

Martens, Willem (2005) A multicomponential model of shame. Journal for Theory of Social Behavior, 35, 4, 399-411.

Massey, Douglas S. (2002) A brief history of human society: The origin and role of emotion in social life. American Sociological Rewiew, 67, 1-29.

McCarthy, John D. & Zald, Mayer (1977) Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 1212-1241.

McDougall, William (1908) Social Psychology. Londra: Methuen & Co.

Moldoveanu, Andreea (2006) Fenomenul atribuirii. În S. Chelcea (coord.). Psihosociologie. Teorie si aplicaŃii (pp. 205-215). Bucuresti: Editura Economică.

Munteanu, Eugen si Munteanu, Lucia-Gabriela (1996) Aeterna latinitas. Iasi: Editura Polirom.

Nathanson, Dod L. (1987). The shame/pride axis. In

N.B. Lewis (ed.). The Role of Shame in Symptom Formation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Noelle-Neuman, Elisabeth (1984, 2004) Spirala tăcerii. Opinia pblică – învelisul nostru social. Bucuresti: Editura Comunicare.ro (Die Schweigespirale. Offentliche Meinung – unsere soziale Haut. Munchen: Langen Muller. Trad. rom. V. Cucu-Oancea).

Oatley, Keith & Jenkins, Jennifer M. (1996) Understanding Emotions. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

O’Gorman, Hubert J. (1986) The discovery of pluralistic ignorance. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 22, 333-337.

Parrott, Gerrod W. (1995, 1996) Emotional experience. In A.S.R. Manstead si M. Hewstone (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 198- 203). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Parrott, Gerrod W. (1995, 1996) Guilt and shame. In A.S.R. Manstead si M. Hewstone (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (p. 284). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Pavelcu, Vasile (1936, 1999) FuncŃia afectivităŃii. In V. Pavelcu. Elogiul prostiei. Psihologie aplicată la viaŃa cotidiană (pp. 167-184). Iasi: Editura Polirom.

Plutchik, Robert (1962) The Emotion. Fact, Theories, and A New Model. New York: Random House.

Plutchik, Robert (1980) Emotion: A Psychoevolutionay Synthesis. New York: Harper and Row.

Plutchik, Robert (2002) Emotions and Life: Perspectives from Psychology, Biology, and Evolution. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Scheff, Thomas J. (1988) Shame and conformity: The defence-emotion system. American Sociological Review, 53, 3, 395-406.

Scheff, Thomas J. (1990) Socialization of emotions: Pride and shame as causal agents: An affect control model. In Th. D. Kemper (ed.) Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotion (pp. 281-304). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Scheff, Thomas J. (2000) Shame and the social bond: A sociological theory. Sociological Theory, 18,1, 84-99.

Scheff, Thomas J. (2003) Shame and self in society. Symbolic Interaction, 26, 239-262.

Scheff, Thomas J. & Retzinger, Suzanne (1991) Violence and Emotions. Lexington, Mass: Lexinton Books.

Sennett, Richard & Cobb, Jonathan (1972) The Hidden Injuries of Class. New York: Vintage Books.

Steven, Gordon L. (1981) The Sociology of Sentiments and Emotion. In M. Rosenberg si R.H. Turner (eds) Social Psychology. Sociological Perspectives (pp. 562-592). New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Tangney, Price June (1990) Assesing individual differences in proneness to shame and guilt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 102-111.

Tangney, Price June (1991) Moral affect: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 598-607.

Tangney, Price June si Dearting, Ronda L. (2002). Shame and Guilt. New York: The Guilford Press.

Taylor, Gabriele (1985) Pride, Shame, and Guilt. Oxford: Clarndon Press.

Teodorescu, Cristian (2006) Vina morală si vina legală. Le Monde Diplomatique, 1, 6, 1.

Tiedens, Larissa Z. & Leach, Colin Wayne (eds) (2004) The Social Life of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tomkins, Silvian S. (1963) Shame. In D.L. Nathanson (ed.). The Many Faces of Shame (pp. 133-161). New York: Gulford Press.

Turner, Jonathan H. (1990) Toward a general sociological theory of emotion. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 29, 132- 162.

Turner, Jonathan H. & Stets, Jean E. (2005) The Sociology of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weiner, B. (1993) On sin versus sickness: A theory of perceived responsibility and social motivation. American Psychologist, 48, 9, 957-965.

Wood, Julia T. (2004) Interpersonal Communication. Everyday Encounters. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Septimiu Chelcea



Asociatia de Psihologie Industriala si Organizationala
Strada Grigore Moisil, nr. 42, sector 2, București, cod poștal 023796

Creative Commons License
This work by Psihologia Resurselor Umane is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at pru.apio.ro.