Exploring personal experience of wartime crisis effects on job insecurity in Syria

Ali Bassam Mahmoud, William D. Reisel


The present research was conducted in Syria during the crisis conditions facing the nation in the years 2011-2014. We hypothesized that the broad effects of the Personal Experience of Wartime Crisis (PEoWTC) would be strongly and positively associated with increased job insecurity. We reasoned that employees are likely to experience intense unpredictability at work as a direct or indirect function of the national crisis. This line of inquiry represents a first in job insecurity research because PEoWTC has not previously been examined as a predictor of job insecurity. Thus, this research analyzes a new predictor of job insecurity, i.e., PEoWTC, and how its effects are indirectly transmitted via job insecurity to several organizational outcomes. Using a cross-sectional design, our preliminary data come from a sample consisting of 129 professionals, managers, and administrators. Our results show that PEoWTC positively predicts job insecurity. Additionally, our findings indicate that job insecurity significantly mediates the relationships between PEoWTC and job satisfaction, affective commitment, intention to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).


Personal Experience of Wartime Crisis; Job Insecurity; Job Satisfaction; Affective Commitment; Trust; Intention to Quit; Organizational Citizenship Behavior; Syria

Full Text:



Al-Ali, A. (2014, February 18). The glitter of public sector employment. Retrieved September 16, 2015, from Al-Azmenah:


Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Ameen, E., Jackson, C., Pasewark, W., & Strawser, J. (1995). An Empirical Investigation of the Antecedents and Consequences of Job Insecurity on the Turnover Intentions of Academic Accountants. Issues in Accounting Education, 10(1), 65-82.

Arnold, H. J., & Feldman, D. C. (1982). A multivariate analysis of the determinants of job turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 350-360.

Ashford, S. J., Lee, C. L., & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes, and consequences of job insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 803-829.

Bal, P., De Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Van Der Velde, M. (2008). Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 143–158.

Baron, R., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator–mediator distinction in social psychological research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. Triandis, & J. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Cheng, G. H., & Chan, D. K. (2008). Who suffers more from job insecurity? A Meta-Analytic review. Applied Psychology, 57(2), 272-303.

Clare, J. R. (1950). Suggestion systems can reduce turnover. Personnel Journal, 29, 207-210.

Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 386-400.

Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909-927.

Conway, N., & Briner, R. (2005). Understanding Psychological Contracts at Work, a Critical Evaluation of Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

De Cuyper, N., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2009). Job Insecurity and Employability in Fixed-Term Contractors, Agency Workers, and Permanent Workers: Associations with Job Satisfaction and Affective Organizational Commitment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(2), 193–205.

De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literature on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 31(4), 1-6.

Eisinga, R., Grotenhuis, M., & Pelzer, B. (2013). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637-642.

Francis, L., & Barling, J. (2005). Organizational injustice and psychological strain. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 37(4), 250-261.Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 438-448.

Hartley, J., Jacobson, D., Klandermans, B., & van Vuuren, T. (1991). Job insecurity: Coping with jobs at risk. London: Sage Publications.

Hsu, M., Jiang, J., Klein, G., & Tang, Z. (2003). Perceived career incentives and intent to leave. Information & Management, 40, 361–369.

Hughes, M., & Kroehler, C. (2011). Sociology: The Core. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Judge, T. A., Scott, B. A., & Ilies, R. (2006). Hostility, Job Attitudes, and Workplace Deviance: Test of a Multilevel Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 126–138.

Karasek, R., Brisson, C., Kawakami, N., Houtman, I., Bongers, P., & Amick, B. (1989). The job content questionnaire (JCQ): An instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 322-355.

Keim, A. C., Landis, R. S., Pierce, C. A., & Earnest, D. R. (2014). Why do employees worry about their jobs? A meta-analytic review of predictors of job insecurity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(3), 269-290.

Laine, M., Heijden, B. I., Wickstrom, G., Hasselhorn, H.-M., & Tackenberg, P. (2009). Job insecurity and intent to leave the nursing profession in Europe. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(2), 420-438.

Mahmoud, A. B. (2013). A Proposed Model for the Relationships among Patient Satisfaction, and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction, Job Security, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intentions – An Empirical Investigation within Private Hospitals in Damascus and Rural Damascus Governorates. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Higher Institute of Business Administration, Human Resource Management, Damascus.

Mahmoud, A., & Reisel, W. (2014). Relating patient satisfaction to nurses’ job satisfaction, job security, and obedience OCBs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare, 8(1), 47-61.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: Who minds the shop while employees watch the boss? Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 874-888.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Gellatly, I. R. (1990). Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: Evaluation of measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(6), 710–720.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective continuance and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 207-239.

Millward, L. J., & Brewerton, P. M. (2000). Psychological contracts: Employee relations for the twenty-first century? In C. Cooper, & I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1–61). Chichester, England: Wiley.

Morrison, E. W., & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 226–256.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Parzefall, M.‐R, & Coyle‐Shapiro, J.‐M. (2011). Making sense of psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(1), 12 - 27.

Peng, Z. (2008). Towards a theory of psychological contract: From eyes of employees. United States: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 262-270.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891.

Reisel, W. D., & Banai, M. (2002). Comparison of a multidimensional and a global measure of job insecurity: predicting job attitudes and work behaviors. Psychological Reports, 90(3), 913-922.

Reisel, W. D., Probst, T. M., Swee-Lim, C., Maloles, C. M., & König, C. J. (2010). The Effects of Job Insecurity on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Deviant Behavior, and Negative Emotions of Employees. International Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), 74-91.

Ronan, W. (1967). A Study Of and Some Concepts Concerning Labor Turnover. Occupational Psychology, 41(4), 193-202.

Rousseau, D. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2(2), 121-139.

Rousseau, D. (1995). Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Smith, F. J., & Kerr, w. A. (1953). Turnover factors as assessed by the exit interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 352-355.

Sok, J., Blomme, R., & Trompa, D. (2013). The use of the psychological contract to explain self-perceived employability. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 274– 284.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.

Suazo, M. (2009). The mediating role of psychological contract violation on the relations between psychological contract breach and work‐related attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(2), 136 - 160.

Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., & Näswall, K. (2002). No security: A meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3), 242-264.

Swift, M. L., & Virick, M. (2013). Perceived support, knowledge tacitness, and provider knowledge sharing. Group & Organization Management, 38(6), 717-742.

The World Factbook. (2014). Retrieved March 5, 2015, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html

Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765-802.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 William D. Reisel, Ali Bassam Mahmoud

Asociatia de Psihologie Industriala si Organizationala
Strada Grigore Moisil, nr. 42, sector 2, București, cod poștal 023796

Creative Commons License
This work by Psihologia Resurselor Umane is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at pru.apio.ro.