Toxic Leadership Scale-Romanian adaptation

Marian Popa, Violeta Rotărescu, Coralia Sulea, Patricia Albulescu


The current study aims at developing a Romanian version of the Toxic Leadership Scale (TLS) (Schmidt, 2008), based on a five dimensions model: abusive leadership, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, self-promotion and unpredictability. The data were collected from a sample of 352 participants, based on the snowball technique. The analyses offered information about reliability, construct and criterion validity. Each scale dimension showed good reliability (between .82 and .90), and also the global scale had good reliability (.95). The construct validity was analyzed by looking at the negative correlations of the TLS with the scores of the Romanian versions of two scales, Leader Member Exchange (rmean =-.52) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (rmean=-.46), and also with a sexual harassment scale (rmean =-.37). The exploratory factor analysis on the Romanian scale items showed a four latent factors model that explained 58.43% of the total variance: self-promotion, abusive leadership, unpredictability and authoritarianism. The criterion validity was indicated by the correlations with the satisfaction with the supervisor scale (between .47 and .56 for each of the 5 subscales and the TLS global score). Also we observed significant statistical differences, with above average effect sizes, between the participants with high turnover intent when compared with those with lower intent.


toxic leadership; job satisfaction; validity fidelity; scale adaptation


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